This Article

Citations


Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Comparing Aggression, Anxiety, and Depression in the Third and Fourth Grade High School Girl Students Living in Boarding Schools, With Their Peers in Regular High Schools


1 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Kish Branch, Kish Island, IR Iran
2 Institute of History of Medicine, Islamic and Complementary Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Allameh Tabatabai, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Department of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Roudehen, IR Iran
5 Research Center for Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Morteza Shamohammadi, Research Center for Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9125187683, E-mail: mshamohammadi@yahoo.com.
Islamic Lifestyle Centered on Health. 2013 December; 1(4): e23012 , DOI: 10.5812/ilch.23012
Article Type: Research Article; Received: Apr 16, 2013; Revised: Jun 20, 2013; Accepted: Jun 27, 2013; epub: Dec 20, 2013; ppub: Dec 2013

Abstract


Background: Mental health is one of the most important healthcare indicators in the community.

Objectives: The current study aimed to compare aggression, anxiety, and depression in the third and fourth grade high school girl students living in boarding schools, with their peers in regular high schools.

Patients and Methods: The current research was conducted based on applied casual-comparative (CC) model. The population under study included third and fourth grade high school girl students, from districts 4, 6, 7, 8, and 19 of Tehran, Iran, living in boarding schools, and their peers in the regular high schools, from 2013 to 2014. The population size was 140 subjects (70 girl students living in boarding schools and 70 girl students from regular high schools). To select subjects first, cluster random sampling and then available sampling methods were applied. To collect data, SCL90-R test was used and its reliability was determined by the designers between 0.78 and 0.90, through test retest method. The reliability of test scales in Iran, except for aggression, phobic anxiety, and paranoid, was more than 0.80, and the obtained validity showed that the test can be used as a screening or diagnostic tool for mental disorders. To analyze data, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. In the descriptive statistics, the average, standard deviation, etc. were measured and in the inferential statistics, the Mann-Whitney U-test, which is equivalent to non-parametric test (t-test), was used.

Results: According to the results of the current study, there was a significant relationship between the girl students living in boarding high schools and their peers in regular high schools in the aggression, anxiety, and depression, with 95% confidence. According to the results, the level of aggression, anxiety, and depression among girl students living in boarding high schools was higher than their peers from regular high schools.

Conclusions: According to the results of the current study, living with family members has positive effects on mental health and other mental processes of adolescents.

Keywords: Orphanages; Mental Disorders; Students; Adolescents

1. Background


Mental health is one of the most important healthcare indicators in the community. Mental health can help people to have comfortable life and achieve their ultimate goals, and its absence causes different troubles and difficulties (1). Today, preparing a safe and proper physical and social environment for children, the greatest national wealth of any society, is one of the most important and critical problems of countries; since the factors disrupting children life condition may affect their health. Problems such as improper function of the family, mistreatment, and poverty, being single-parent, drug abuse by parents and being derelict are among the factors that usually lead to placing children in foster care centers and orphanages. On the other hand, living in orphanages and foster care centers children encounter numerous social and health problems (2). Aggression is one of the most important problems of adolescence (3, 4). At present, it is considered a social problem, which deals with mental health (5). The term aggression has been repeatedly heard; but it is hard to define or analyze it (6-8). According to Delvecchio and Olivery, aggression is referred to the obvious behavior with the intention of harming (9).


From early in the 70’s psychological effects of industrial developments on human life have raised the attention of theorists and psychologists. Anxiety, especially in adolescents and the youth, is a psychological complication which has drawn the attention of psychologists (10). Today, millions of people suffer from anxiety. Anxiety has ingrained in their soul and body; therefore they cannot get back to normal life. Hancock believes that anxiety causes distraction, confusion, and feeling helpless, if exceeds the normal mode. In this case, the efficiency is reduced and the performance is dropped. World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that the mental disorders, especially anxiety, have increased; and the level of anxiety in the developed and developing countries is 36.8% and 83.2%, respectively (11). According to the provided definitions, anxiety is an undesirable and vague feeling, which is associated with the sense of suspicion toward an unknown factor (12). This undesirable feeling may associate with physiologic, emotional, and spiritual symptoms and arise as an intense emotional feeling (13).


Since the ancient time, depression has always hurt human. Hippocrates, a famous Greek physician, first used the term Melancholia to express depression, about 2400 years ago (14). Depression is a mental-biological reaction, associated with the feeling of depression, sadness, hopelessness, pessimism, lack of emotion, and reduces the level of confidence (15). Biologically, depression is an emotional disorder which results from lack of biogenetic amines (16). Rahnamaye Namin evaluated the level of depression in dormitory students of the Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Abhar, and Bouin-Zahra branches. He showed that out of 407 students understudy, 18.2% had severe depression. Level of depression among the students of Takestan, Abhar, and Bouin-Zahra branches was 17.5%, 14.7%, and 21.9%, respectively. His study indicated a significant relationship between the condition of dormitories and the level of depression in the students (17).


Bayat et al. evaluated the social health of the children aged 7 to 11 years, living in foster care centers; their results showed that the social health of 45.7% and 19.1% of children were moderate and weak, respectively. K-square test also showed significant relationship between the social health and gender (P = 0.05); the relationship between social health and age, and also social health and duration of staying in these centers were insignificant (P = 0.534) (2). Jahangiri et al. evaluated the relationship between dormitory life satisfaction and alienation in the girl students living in dormitories. The results showed that 11.3% of the population understudy had low, 62.7% moderate, and 26% high level of alienation. Also, the relationship between dormitory life satisfaction and different aspects of alienation was found insignificant. In other words, by increasing dormitory life satisfaction, the level of alienation (in different aspects as feeling of not belonging, feeling of emptiness and meaninglessness, feeling sociopathic and detached from the values) decreased (18).


Mirzaei et al. compared the behavioral properties of adolescents living in foster care centers with those of the adolescents under the supervision of parents, conducted on 140 thirteen-year-old girls and boys living in foster care centers and 130 adolescents under the supervision of parents, showed that tendency toward expressing mental tiredness, isolation, depression, and anti-social behaviors among adolescents living in foster care centers was higher than those of the ones under the supervision of parents; also, results of this study showed that emotional behaviors and tendency toward mental tiredness and depression was higher among the girls than the boys who lived in foster care centers (19). Suman Suman evaluated the mental health status of 300 children living in orphanages of India. Results showed a significant relationship between the mental disorders and parental deprivation in the children placed in orphanages early in their lives; according to this study, these children showed the worst mental disorders. Also, 33% of the children who lived in orphanages had behavioral problems (20).

2. Objectives


The current study aimed to compare aggression, anxiety, and depression in the third and fourth grade high school girl students, living in boarding schools, with their peers in regular high schools.

3. Patients and Methods


The current study was conducted based on applied casual-comparative (CC) model.


3.1. Population, Samples and Sampling

The population under study included the third and fourth grade high school girl students, from districts 4, 6, 7, 8, and 19 of Tehran, Iran, living in boarding high schools, and their peers in the regular high schools, in 2013 -2014 academic year. The population size was 140 subjects (70 girl students living in boarding schools and 70 girl students from regular high schools). To select the subjects, cluster random sampling and available sampling methods were applied respectively; in a way that in cluster random sampling, first district 19 was selected from the districts 4, 6, 7, 8, and 19, which have boarding high schools; and in the next step, a boarding and a regular high school were added and then the subjects were selected through available sampling method; finally, to collect data SCL90-R test was conducted.


To collect data, SCL90-R test was employed. This test contains 90 questions to evaluate mental status, reported by the subject. The early form of the test was introduced by Dragutis, Lipman and Curry in 1973, and then was revised based on clinical experiments and psychological analyses to provide the final model. To evaluate nine-dimension groups, Dragutis used two methods as internal reliability testing and test retest reliability. The internal reliability of SCL90-R for the nine evaluated dimensions was satisfactory and the highest and lowest correlation 0.90 and 0.77 were found in depression and psychosis respectively. The reliability of retest was measured between 0.78 and 0.90. In the study conducted in Iran on the reliability and validity of SCL90-R, the reliability was more than 0.80 in all scales, except for aggression, phobic anxiety and paranoid. The validity of the test indicated that it can be employed as a screening or diagnostic tool for mental disorders in Iran (21, 22).

4. Results


In the current study, data analysis was conducted in two sections as descriptive and inferential statistics. In descriptive statistics, average and moderate levels have been measured, and in inferential statistics, considering the fact that distribution of variables is not normal, the Mann-Whitney U-test, which is equivalent to non-parametric test (t-test), was used. The average aggression scores of the girl students living in boarding high schools, and their peers in regular high schools were 82.75 and 58.25, respectively (Tables 1 and 2).


Table 1.
Descriptive Statistics of Variables in Girl Students Living in Boarding High Schools

Table 2.
Descriptive Statistics of Variables in Girl Students of Regular High Schools

According to Table 3, since the level of significance of the test (0.000) was lower than 0.05 (P < 0.05), there was a significant difference in the level of aggression between girl students living in boarding high schools and their peers in regular high schools, with 95% confidence. According to the results of the current study, aggression level among girl students living in boarding high schools was higher than that of their peers in regular high schools. The average scores of anxiety variable for the girl students living in boarding high schools, and that of their peers in regular high schools were 77.47 and 63.53, respectively.


Table 3.
The Mann–Whitney U-test to Determine the Significant Difference in Aggression level Between the Girl Students Living in Boarding High Schools and that of Their Peers in Regular High Schools a

According to Table 4, since the level of significance was 0.041 (P < 0.05), there was a significant difference in the level of anxiety between the girl students living in boarding high schools and that of their peers in regular high schools, with 95% confidence. According to the results, the level of anxiety among girl students living in boarding high schools was higher than that of their peers in regular high schools. The average depression scores of the girl students living in boarding high schools and that of their peers in regular high schools were 78.09 and 62.91, respectively.


Table 4.
The Mann–Whitney U-test to Determine the Significant Difference in Anxiety level of Girl Students Living in Boarding High Schools and That of Their Peers in Regular High Schools a

According to Table 5, since the level of significance of the test (0.026) was lower than 0.05 (P < 0.05), there was a significant difference in the depression level between the girl students living in boarding high schools and that of their peers in regular high schools, with 95% confidence. According to the results of the current study, depression among the girl students living in boarding high schools was higher than that of their peers in regular high schools.


Table 5.
The Mann–Whitney U-test to Determine the Significant Difference in Depression level of Girl Students Living in Boarding High Schools and that of Their Peers in Regular High Schools a

5. Discussion


The current study aimed to answer the question if there is any relationship between aggression, anxiety, and depression levels in the third and fourth grade high school girl students, living in boarding schools and those of their peers in regular high schools. Results of the Mann-Whitney U-test showed that, since the significance level of the test (0.000) was lower than 0.05 (P < 0.05), there was a significant difference in the aggression level of the girl students living in boarding high schools and that of their peers in regular high schools, with 95% confidence. According to the results of the current study, level of aggression among the girl students living in boarding high schools was higher than that of their peers in regular high schools.


Results of the Mann-Whitney U-test showed that, since the significance level of the test (0.041) was lower than 0.05 (P < 0.05), there was a significant difference in the anxiety level of the girl students living in boarding high schools and that of their peers in regular high schools, with 95% confidence. According to the results of the current study, anxiety level among the girl students living in boarding high schools was higher than that of their peers in regular high schools. Results of Mann-Whitney U-test showed that, since the significance level of the test (0.026) was lower than 0.05 (P < 0.05), there was a significant difference in the depression level os the girl students living in boarding high schools and that of their peers in regular high schools, with 95% confidence. According to the results of the current study, level of depression among the girl students living in boarding high schools was higher than that of their peers in regular high schools.


Results of the current study complied with those of other studies conducted in Iran and the other countries. For example, the study of Rahnamaye Namin showed that 5.24% of students had mild depression, 8% needed consultation, 2.14% had moderate depression, 7, 3% severe depression, and 2.49% were healthy. Also, significant relationship was observed in the depression level between living in dormitories and depression (17). Mirzaei conducted a study on 45 adolescents living in orphanages, using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Beck Depression Inventory; results of the study showed the high level of anti-social behaviors associated with lack of feeling guilty among the population understudy (19).


Rezaei Adriani et al. conducted a study to compare the level of depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life among girl and boy students living in dormitories. Their results showed that the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among boy students was higher than girl students. In this study, 33.2% and 4.9% of the students had moderate and low levels of living condition, respectively. Also, no significant relationship was observed between the educational level and depression, anxiety, stress, and life quality (23). Adham et al. (24) in their study conducted on the students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences showed that the level of anxiety and insomnia, and severe depression among these students were 2.3% and 2%, respectively. Their results indicated the low level of anxiety and depression, compared to the other similar studies (24).


Mortazawi (25) conducted a study on the mental-behavioral status of children living in rehabilitation orphanages of Tehran Province affiliated to the University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Evaluating the mental status of children showed that by increasing the level of education, the level of anxiety, depression, aggression and neurotic reactions increased significantly, and in most of the cases reached the highest level in the fifth year of primary school or the first year of guidance school; simultaneously, the level of self-confidence among children reduced gradually and reached the lowest level in the first year of guidance school. Girl students showed higher levels of depression, aggression, fears, and finally severe neurotic reactions than boys (25).


Thompson and Tportrey performed a study on the direct effect of orphanage life on the level of fear, anxiety, and shyness in offender adolescents living in orphanages. Their results showed high level of fear, anxiety, and shyness in offender adolescents living in orphanages, compared with those of their normal peers (26). Erol et al. (27) evaluated the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems and their associated factors in the children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, living in orphanages and compared them with those of their peers under the supervision of parents. Results of their study showed that the prevalence of such problems between the children and adolescents living in orphanages and those of their peers under the supervision of parents were 18.3%-47%, and 9%-11%, respectively (28). Caman evaluated the prevalence of psychological symptoms among adolescents aged 13-16 years, living in orphanages in Ankara, Turkey. His results indicated that the prevalence of psychological symptoms among the adolescents living in orphanages was higher than those of their normal peers (27).


Aslipour et al. (29) compared the graphic characteristics of orphans with those of their normal peers in the family drawing test. Their results showed no significant difference between the children of the two groups regarding the content indexes of family drawing test such as the first drawn person, the biggest person, matching, the last drawn person, and removing a person, and in the graphic indexes such as the extent of drawn area, the force extended to draw lines, direction of drawn lines, and distance between the child and the parents. However, significant difference was observed between the groups regarding adding a new person (P = 0.039). Children who lived in orphanages mostly showed conflicts over the issues related to parents, and regarding normal children, problems mostly were observed over the conflicts between the children (29).


Hashemabadi (30) compared the emotional intelligence between the girls living in orphanages and their normal peers, aged 12-18 years in Mashhad, Iran. Results of the study showed significant difference between the groups regarding emotional intelligence factors such as self-awareness, self-actualization, empathy, happiness, problem solving, optimism, flexibility, and responsiveness in a way that normal children significantly had higher emotional intelligence level than their peers living in orphanages, experience better emotional relationship, and also had more positive attitudes toward orphan children (30).


Masnavi et al. evaluated the attitude of dormitory students of Iran University of Medical Sciences regarding deviant behaviors in dormitories and found that the factors such as distribution of the students in rooms, shame reduction due to lack of cloths changing space, and sexual temptations affects deviant behaviors in dormitories and, considering the gender, boy students had masturbated more than girl students, and, in contrast, girl students had suppressed their sexual needs more than boy students (31).


In addition to student dormitories, foster care centers, and orphanages, the researchers evaluated the prevalence of psychological disorders in nursing homes; for example, results of the study by Alamdarlou et al. (32) showed a significant difference between the elderly living in nursing homes and their peers living with their family in general health. In other words, the level of general health among the elderly living in nursing homes was significantly lower than those who live with their families. Also, results of their study showed a significant difference between the elderly living in nursing homes and their peers living with their family regarding feeling of loneliness; in this regard, the score of loneliness among the elderly living in nursing homes was significantly higher than that of their peers living with their families. Besides, results of the study indicated a significant difference between the elderly living in nursing homes and their peers living with their family, considering the feeling of loneliness, in a way that feeling of loneliness among men was significantly higher than women (32).


Mental disorders are common and have high disease burden, but their economic costs have been less considered (33). Results of the current study and the studies conducted on the prevalence of mental disorders among the students living in boarding schools, and children, adolescents and the elderly living in orphanages and nursing homes encourage the authorities and specialists of healthcare affairs to pay more attention to the mental health of these people to improve their life quality, and social and educational activities. Also, most of the studies showed that living with other family members has positive effects on mental health and other mental processes of children, adolescents and the elderly.


Salehi and Niri evaluated the effect of education and social supports on life quality of the elderly living in nursing homes; Azh et al. conducted a study on the level of anxiety and life quality among dormitory students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and showed that education and social supports improved the life quality of the elderly who live in nursing homes, and reduced the level of anxiety among dormitory students (34, 35).

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Drs. Majid Sadeghi, Mohammad Reze Mohammadi. Javad Mahmoudi Gharaei, and Parivash Vakili for their cooperation. The Authors also wish to thank the Education Authorities of Tehran, Iran.

Footnotes

Authors’ Contributions: Elaheh Moflehi performing tests and writing manuscripts, Akram Ansari Moghaddam Supervising the study.

References


  • 1. Partovinejad A, Ahmari Tehran H, Heydari A, Keyhani M, Taziki SA. Evaluating the level of depression among the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences and seminary students of Qom. J Qom Univ Med Sci. 2011;3(5):52-49.
  • 2. Bayat M, Naderifar M, Bayat M, Miri M, Foroughi S. Social health of children aged 7 to 11 years living in boarding schools. J Iran nurs. 2007;20(51):97-104.
  • 3. Nangle DW, Erdley C, Carpenter EM, Newman JE. Social skills training as a treatment for aggressive children and adolescents: a developmental–clinical integration. Aggress Violent Beh. 2002;7(2):169-99. [DOI]
  • 4. Pellegrini AD, Long JD. A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and victimization during the transition from primary school through secondary school. Brit J Dev Psychol. 2002;20(2):259-80. [DOI]
  • 5. Nicholson S. Anger management revolution studies distribution. company inc. of child Adolescent psychiatry; 2003. p. 1478-87.
  • 6. Karimi Y. Social Psychology. 2 ed. Tehran: Payam noor university press; 2006.
  • 7. Dortaj F, Masaebi A, Asadzadeh H. Evaluating the effect of training anger management on aggression and social adjustment of boy students aged 12 to 15. J appl psychol. 2009;3(4supl12):62-72.
  • 8. Ganjeh SAR, Dehestani M, Zadehmohammadi A. Comparing the effectiveness of problem solving training and emotional intelligence in the reduction of aggression among high school boy students. J sci res appl psychol. 2013;12(2 supl 15):38-50.
  • 9. Delvecchio H, Olivery M. Effectiveness of anger treatment for specific anger problem, A meta-analytic review. J clin psychol. 2005;2(2):15-34.
  • 10. Araghi Y, Aslefattahi B, Seyedgholami F. Effectiveness of group counseling through cognitive-behavioral method on reducing the symptoms of anxiety among pre-university girl students in Shabestar, Iran. J educ sci. 2011;4(15):13-24.
  • 11. Vafaei M, Mostafavi M, Salehi S. Evaluating the level of anxiety, stress and depression and their correlation with body mass index of nursery students. Med Sci J Islamic Azad Univ. 2013;23(2):154-9.
  • 12. In: Black J, Hawks J, editor(s). Medical-surgical nursing: management for positive outcomes. 8 ed. New York: Saunders; 2005.
  • 13. In: Smeltzer S, Bare B, editor(s). Brunner & Suddarth s textbook of medical-surgical nursing. 12 ed. North American: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.
  • 14. Jeloudar YS, Godarzi LF. Treatment of depression with prayer and worshiping. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2012;15(1):94-100.
  • 15. Hemmatfar A, Shahsavari A, Tip H. Evaluating the effect of eight-week aerobic exercises on depression and level of serum serotonin on student girls with depression aged 18 to 25 years in Aligoudarz, Iran. J sport bioscience. 2012;13:51-62.
  • 16. Sadouk BJ. Summary of psychology: behavioral sciences. Tehran: Arjmand Pub; 2008.
  • 17. Rahnamaye Namin M. Evaluating the level of depression among dormitory students of Islamic Azad university branches of Takestan, Abhar, and Boein -Zahra. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci. 2012;16(2supl 63):84-7.
  • 18. Jahangiri J, Zarechi AF, Tanha F, Zarechi AH. Evaluating the relation between the dormitory life satisfaction and alienation in the girl students. J cult art. 2012;4(4):89-106.
  • 19. Mirzaei M. Comparing neuroticism and anti-social behaviors between the orphan and normal adolescents. Islamic Azad University, Roudehen branch; 2007.
  • 20. Suman suman K. A Study of the mental health status of children in Orphanages at bangalore Indian. J soc work. 2006.
  • 21. Yazdi BSA, Boulhari J, Shahmohammadi D. Evaluating the epidemiology of mental disorders in rural areas of meybod. Yazd J thought behav. 1994;1(1)
  • 22. Nourbala AA, Ramezanzadeh F, Abedinia N, Yazdi BSA. Evaluating the prevalence of psychological disorders among fertile and infertile women. J Shahed Univ Med Sci. 2008;16(77):63-70.
  • 23. Adriani RM, Azadi A, Ahmadi F, Vahedian A. Comparing the level of depression, anxiety, stress, and life quality of boy and dormitory girl students. J nursery. 2009;2(4,5):31-8.
  • 24. Adham D, Safi SP, Amiri M, Dadkhah B, Mohammadi MA, Mozaffari N, et al. Evaluating the situation of mental health in the students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences entering 2007-2008. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2008;8(3):229-34.
  • 25. Mortazawi S. Evaluating mental-behavioral situation of orphans covered by Rehabilitation Organization of Iran. Tehran: University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences press; 2006.
  • 26. Thompson T, Tportrey T. Adolescent stress and juvenile delinquency:An interactive Approach. southwestern sociological association; 2008.
  • 27. Çaman ÖK. Adolescents Living in Orphanages in Ankara: Psychological Symptoms, Level of Physical Activity, and Associated Factors. Turkish J Psychiat. 2011;22(2):1-10.
  • 28. Erol N, Öztop D, Özcan ÖÖ. Epidemiology of Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents Reared in Orphanages: A National Comparative Study. Turkish J Psychiat. 2008;19(3):1-13.
  • 29. Aslipour A, KAfi SM, Javid KM. Comparing graphic characteristics between orphans and their normal peers in the family drawing test. J ment health principle. 2010;12(4 supl 48):674-83.
  • 30. Hashemabadi G. Comparing emotional intelligence between orphans and their normal peers. J educ psychol. 2011;7(21):73-89.
  • 31. Masnavi A, Aram SE, Hossaini SA, Aghabakhshi HA, Froughan M, Sadrosadat SJ, et al. The attitude of dormitory students of Iran University of Medical Sciences toward deviant behaviors in dormitories. J Rehabil. 2005;6(4 supl 23):20-5.
  • 32. Alamdarlou H, Dehshiri G, Shojaei S, Hakimirad E. Comparing feeling of loneliness and general health between elderly living with family and their peers living in nursing homes of North-East of Tehran. J Iran Elderly. 2008;3(8):557-64.
  • 33. Shoushtari AA. Evaluating the prevalence of mental disorders among children and adolescents of Tehran. Tehran University of Medical Science; 2007.
  • 34. Saheli T, Niri DN. Evaluating the relation between anxiety, and life quality in dormitory students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Payesh. 2011;10(2):175-81.
  • 35. Azh N, Mehrtash B, Javadi A. Evaluating the effect of education and social supports on the life quality of elderly living in nursing houses of Qazvin. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci. 2012;16(3 supl 64):47-52.

Table 1.

Descriptive Statistics of Variables in Girl Students Living in Boarding High Schools

Variable Average Median Mode SD Skewness Kurtosis Lowest Level Highest Level
Aggression 1.667 1 0.67 0.7832 0.854 0.012 0 3.17
Anxiety 1.2067 1.055 0.78 0.8493 0.859 0.673 0 3.89
Depression 1.1890 1.153 2.31 0.7348 0.141 -1.231 0 2.54

Table 2.

Descriptive Statistics of Variables in Girl Students of Regular High Schools

Variable Average Median Mode SD Skewness Kurtosis Lowest Level Highest Level
Aggression 0.8286 0.1667 0 1.0864 0.925 0.712 0 3
Anxiety 0.9222 0.333 0.11 0.7857 0.402 -1.50 0.11 2.11
Depression 0.9110 0.6923 0 0.6595 -0.152 -1.362 0 1.85

Table 3.

The Mann–Whitney U-test to Determine the Significant Difference in Aggression level Between the Girl Students Living in Boarding High Schools and that of Their Peers in Regular High Schools a

Mann–Whitney U Statistics Z Statistics Level of Significance
1592.5 -3.601 0.000
a P < 0.05.

Table 4.

The Mann–Whitney U-test to Determine the Significant Difference in Anxiety level of Girl Students Living in Boarding High Schools and That of Their Peers in Regular High Schools a

Mann–Whitney U Statistics Z Statistics Level of Significance
1592.5 -3.601 0.000
a P < 0.05.

Table 5.

The Mann–Whitney U-test to Determine the Significant Difference in Depression level of Girl Students Living in Boarding High Schools and that of Their Peers in Regular High Schools a

Mann–Whitney U Statistics Z Statistics Level of Significance
1918.5 -2.226 0.26
a P < 0.05.