This Article


Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Evaluating the Concept of “Lifestyle” Among Western Scholars

1 Department of Medicine and Religion, Research Institute of History of Medicine, Islamic and Complementary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Qurann and Etrat Center, The Ministry of Health, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Research Center for Philosophy and History of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Mohammad Reza Rajabnejad, Corresponding author: Mohammad Reza Rajabnejad, Research Institute of Islamic and Complementary Medicine, Tehran, IR Iran., E-mail:
Islamic Lifestyle Centered on Health. 2013 December; 1(4): e18697 , DOI: 10.5812/ilch.18697
Article Type: Article Commentary; Received: Aug 5, 2013; Accepted: Aug 5, 2013; epub: Dec 20, 2013; ppub: Dec 2013

Keywords: Lifestyle; Societies

2. Creation of Stylistics

Evaluation of “style” goes back to the days of “Aristotle”, when the style was just related to eloquence, and not poetry. In other words, “Style” was part of convincing method, which was taught in lecturing (9). In medieval era, western linguists had turned to study “style” and had classified it into three types. Their employed model in this classification was the poems of Roman poet “Virgil” who lived in the first century BC. His rural poems which had been written by low style method were about farmers’ life, and his farming poems had been written,by medium style method, to encourage the Romans to invade their territory; but his famous epic poem “Aeneid” follows the high style method. However, creation of “stylistics” or “study of style” is associated with a new period of language and “Saussure`s” researches regarding the creation of modern linguistics (4, 8, 10). In this regard, he researched in sociology, especially the famous sociology of “Emile Durkheim”. Durkheim evaluates and defines those social phenomena which are similar to the natural scientific phenomena. The nature of these phenomena is general not individual. From his viewpoint, the phenomenon is the knowledge matter which cannot be perceived through the intellectual activity, but through the experience and observation. “Saussure” believed that language is a general phenomenon like other social phenomena, and redefined three terms regarding “speech”:

1. “Palore” which is an individual, intellectual and objective verb.

2. “Language” which has two associated angles, individual and social, is dominated by a static system, follows an evolutionary process, and is always a substantive system achieved in the past.

3. Langue, a part of human language, collective achievement of linguistic rules, and a complex of essential traditions which has been accepted in any society to help people to apply this ability (6).

By separation of each term “Saussure” meant to define language as a phenomenon with scientific evaluation competence. Individual`s speech is not a social phenomenon, since it is expressed consciously; therefore it is an individual achievement. As a result, the viewpoint of “Durkheim” and “Saussure” regarding language is influenced by philosophy of positivism, which relates all the values to man, and does not refer any of them to the supernatural; it also considers the empirical knowledge as a new phase of human evolution (10, 11). Besides, “Saussure” believed that literary works are the means of communication, and all aesthetic aspects which author gives to the literary works are only tools to attract the proper attention of reader. The literary work is the unquestioned scope of “stylistics”, because the choice is more conscious in it (12). A new ideology in “stylistics” has been introduced by the German scholar “Leo Seitz”. In other words, all new ideologies in “stylistics” are influenced by his ideology. This ideology is based on a relation between “stylistic features” of text and author’s mental atmosphere; and this ideology is an evolved form of Buffon’s belief who says: “The style is the man himself” (4).

3. Definitions of Style

In the new era, it is difficult to provide an inclusive and exclusive definition of “style”, which seems to be normal in a world full of differences in the basics of cultures and also cultural ramifications. There are different definitions of “style”; from the classical definitions of Aristotle era to the modern definitions of “Buffon” and “Goethe”. According to “Goethe”, “style” is an eminent and efficient principle of writing and compiling which the author follows to discover the internal structure of his subject (12). It is one of the problems which prevents defining “style”, and makes authors to devote the introduction of their books to discuss the ambiguity of this term (13); some of these authors indulged, and thought that by confessing the problem of providing a comprehensive definition of “style”, and also the complaints to them in this regard, they can achieve the desired result and solve the problems, and of course this solution has resulted to nothing but the statement: “the style does not exist” (14). Hence, there is neither a unique definition of “style” which can express an acceptable concept, nor a theory which scholars approve it unanimously (6).


None declared.


Financial Disclosure: There is no conflict of interest.
Funding/Support: None declared.


  • 1. Aryanpoor AH. On the sociology of art. 2001.
  • 2. Simpson J, Weiner E. Oxford dictionary. Oxford University Press; 1989.
  • 3. Ogden CK. The General Basic English Dictionary. 14th ed. Evans Brothers Ltd;
  • 4. Ahmad M. Glossary the rhetorical. Iraq: Printing press Iraqi Academy;
  • 5. Aristotle . Alkhetaba. p. 47-193.
  • 6. Alkoaz MK. Rhetorical stylistics the miracle of the Quran. Tehran, IR Iran: Sokhan; 2008.
  • 7. Javad Attaher A. Introduction in literature review. Beyrout: Addarasat & Annashr; 1988.
  • 8. Peer J. Style and stylistic. Arab Center for Development; 1985.
  • 9. Haff G. Style and stylistic. Baghdad, Iraq: Arabic Dar-e-Afagh; 1985.
  • 10. Susour F. General Linguistics. Arabic Dar-e-Afagh; 1985.
  • 11. Ayyad S. Introduction to Stylistics. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Darololoum; 2007.
  • 12. Enkvist NE. Linguistics and Style.
  • 13. Murry JM. The Problem of Style.
  • 14. Assavi Aljavini M. Stylistics.